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Motivate Through Reinforcement 透過獎勵引起學習動機

Motivation is a topic that is often overlooked. It shouldn’t be. Motivation plays a crucial role in facilitating learning regardless of age or skills level.
We are usually motivated to behave in a certain way to achieve a particular outcome.
學習動機是一個值得關注而往往被人忽略的課題。無論學生的能力和年紀,學習動機在學習過程中起著關鍵作用。我們經常被鼓勵以特定方式行動來達到期望結果。

It is important to observe your child’s behaviors and what they are motivated by. You can then use their motivating items or activities as reinforcement. Reinforcement strengthens the behavior so that the desired behavior can happen again.
觀察子女的行為及他們會被何事何物引起學習動機,並以此作為獎勵。獎勵能強化行為,促使正面行為能再次發生。

Your child might have multiple sources of motivation. For example, playing bubbles with their instructor might satisfy the need for an activity, attention and visual stimuli. Potential reinforcers that can increase motivation includes:
你的子女可能有數個學習動機來源。例如,與導師吹泡泡能滿足他們對活動、來自他人的關注及視覺刺激等需要。能引起學習動機的潛在獎勵包括:

Here are a few tips to ensure motivation is maintained:
有幾個維持學習動機的建議:

1. Pair with Desirable Item 將自己與子女渴望的事物作連結
Make sure you are paired with something that is desirable before starting to do an activity with the child.
與子女開始活動前,確保你與他們渴望的事物有所連結。

2. Appropriate Learning Objectives 適切的學習目標
Choose appropriate learning objectives by assessing the child’s current skills. You can also assess on their strengths. If the task is too difficult, the student might get frustrated. On the other hand, if the task is too easy, the student might get bored. In both case, the child will lose motivation.
以子女現有能力為本,選擇適切的學習目標。你亦可以檢視其強項。一方面,過於困難的課業會令學生感到沮喪;另一方面,過於簡單的課業會令學生感到沉悶。而以上兩個情況都會令學習動機下跌。

3. Access to Most Favored Reinforcer 對最有效果獎勵的使用權
Ensure you have access to a higher value reinforcer (most favored) than what the child can get on his own for free.
對比起學生能無條件得到的活動及物件,確保你能提供更有價值的獎勵。

4. Control Access to Reinforcer 控制獲得獎勵的途徑
Restrict the access to something that is highly desirable for the child, so that the value of the reinforcer remains high.
限制獎勵獲得的途徑,以維持該獎勵的價值。

5. Have Reinforcer Ready 準備好獎勵
Make sure that the student knows you have that reinforcer available before starting to do an activity.
在活動開始前,確保子女已經知道你準備好獎勵。

6. Reinforce Good Behaviors 獎勵正面行為
When doing an activity, you may reinforce the child while still performing well. It is also advised to catch the child being good at random times for displaying good and appropriate behaviors.
活動進行期間,你可以獎勵子女維持良好的表現。你亦可不時獎勵他們良好及適當的行為。

7. Observe the Environmental Change 觀察處境轉變
Remember that motivation is directly influenced by the environment and change in motivation affects how effective a reinforcer is (e.g. someone is not motivated to eat if he is already full).
謹記處境影響學習動機,而動機影響獎勵的效果。(簡單例子︰難以用食物提高一個吃飽的人的學習動機)

8. Make Activity Fun 令活動有趣
Be creative and make the activity FUN and EXCITING!
有趣而刺激的活動始於創意。

 

For more detailed info: “Learning to motivate, motivating to learn” by Dr. James W. Partington
翻譯自Dr. James W. Partington,《Learning to motivate, motivating to learn》節錄


Photographer 攝影: Kay
Design 設計: Wing
Model 模特: Kelly

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