Motivation is a topic that is often overlooked. It shouldn’t be. Motivation plays a crucial role in facilitating learning regardless of age or skills level.
We are usually motivated to behave in a certain way to achieve a particular outcome.
It is important to observe your child’s behaviors and what they are motivated by. You can then use their motivating items or activities as reinforcement. Reinforcement strengthens the behavior so that the desired behavior can happen again.
Your child might have multiple sources of motivation. For example, playing bubbles with their instructor might satisfy the need for an activity, attention and visual stimuli. Potential reinforcers that can increase motivation includes:
- 社交肯定（如：讚賞、擁抱、High 5）
Here are a few tips to ensure motivation is maintained:
1. Pair with Desirable Item 將自己與子女渴望的事物作連結
Make sure you are paired with something that is desirable before starting to do an activity with the child.
2. Appropriate Learning Objectives 適切的學習目標
Choose appropriate learning objectives by assessing the child’s current skills. You can also assess on their strengths. If the task is too difficult, the student might get frustrated. On the other hand, if the task is too easy, the student might get bored. In both case, the child will lose motivation.
3. Access to Most Favored Reinforcer 對最有效果獎勵的使用權
Ensure you have access to a higher value reinforcer (most favored) than what the child can get on his own for free.
4. Control Access to Reinforcer 控制獲得獎勵的途徑
Restrict the access to something that is highly desirable for the child, so that the value of the reinforcer remains high.
5. Have Reinforcer Ready 準備好獎勵
Make sure that the student knows you have that reinforcer available before starting to do an activity.
6. Reinforce Good Behaviors 獎勵正面行為
When doing an activity, you may reinforce the child while still performing well. It is also advised to catch the child being good at random times for displaying good and appropriate behaviors.
7. Observe the Environmental Change 觀察處境轉變
Remember that motivation is directly influenced by the environment and change in motivation affects how effective a reinforcer is (e.g. someone is not motivated to eat if he is already full).
8. Make Activity Fun 令活動有趣
Be creative and make the activity FUN and EXCITING!
For more detailed info: “Learning to motivate, motivating to learn” by Dr. James W. Partington
翻譯自Dr. James W. Partington，《Learning to motivate, motivating to learn》節錄
Photographer 攝影: Kay
Design 設計: Wing
Model 模特: Kelly